Inside production environment we define the painting or painting process as the set of operations necessary for the application of paint in order to satisfy and fulfill the quality, cost, time and safety requirements previously set.
The painting process involves a series of operations that could be grouped into 3 phases or steps:
The first step or phase of the painting process is the surface preparation of the material that we will apply the paint, surface preparation is defined as the set of operations and techniques that has as objective to remove any contaminant that could be present in the surface, also create mechanical and/or chemical anchors (roughness, surface energy...) which increase the adhesion of the next layer of paint.
Inside the field of surface preparation we have techniques and tools that allow us to achieve the cleaning and adhesion requirements before application of paint, techniques like blasting, sanding, cleaning and degreasing with chemicals products, plasma, laser...
The technique or techniques selected for surface preparation must take into account the nature of contaminants to eliminate, the degree of anchorage/adhesion that we must to fulfill and especially the composition, geometry and thickness of the material on which we need to prepare the surface.
Once we have prepared the surface the next step is the application of paint, this phase begins with the operation of mixing the components or products of the paint, generally most of the current paintings are of 2 components (resin and hardener) which are to be homogeneously mixed under the specified parameters indicated by the paint manufacturer, depending of the application technique selected we need to add to the mix a greater or lesser percentage of diluents which will allow us to adjust the viscosity of the mixture and apply the paint correctly.
Currently there is a wide range of techniques, tools and possibilities to apply the painting, from classical paint application with paint brushes, rollers or gloves through techniques and tools such spray guns, electrostatic guns, dip, electrophoresis, etc...
The type of the selected technique is determined by several parameters such as the numbers of pieces to paint, geometry and size of the workpiece, nature and composition of the material, aesthetic requirements, environmental regulations, cost, paint products...
In order to apply the paint in a correct and optimal way we must have the equipment and facilities commensurate with the selected application technique and quality requirements that we must fulfill, facilities as paint booths, sanding box, blasting booths, degreasing and cleaning systems, curing ovens... and equipments as generation and filtration air, booster pumps, heating systems of painting, ionization systems, application guns... are some examples of facilities and equipment usually found in the painting area.
Once we have prepared the surface and we have applied the paint, the last phase of painting or painting process is the curing of the paint, at this stage an a liquid layer will be transformed by drying and hardening mechanisms in a solid and compact layer (coating) which surrounds, protects and enhances the surface on which it is applied.
As is the case in the previous phases, there are different techniques and tools that simplify and accelerate cure times of the paintings, as in the previous phases the selection technique and equipment will depend on various factors like the type of paint selected, composition and nature of the material to paint, geometry and size of the workpiece ...
The success of a good paint job lies in respecting and select each of the appropiate techniques in each of the stages of painting, nothing will serve all effort, time and money invested in a paint application process if the surface preparation not do in accordance with the requirement to fulfill, due all work is ruined when problems such as adhesion failure of paint applied on the surface.
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