Cleaning by mechanical treatment
This type of cleaning consist to remove and tear the contaminants on the surfaces by using mechanical techniques such as abrasive blasting, sanding, brushing, scraping, etc...
The main disadvantage of using these techniques is the abrasion and surface modification of the material suffers, not being possible in materials such as glasses, plastics, etc...
Before to use such techniques is necessary perform a chemical cleaning or degreasing in order to avoid organic contaminants pass through the material and form part of the structure during the abrasion process.
Manual cleaning and degreasing
Manual cleaning and degreasing process it’s realize by the application of cleaning agents (solvents or aqueous cleaners) using rags or brushes, vigorously rubbing the surfaces to be cleaned.
This process has several inconveniences:
Not reach hidden or difficult areas to access where remains contaminants such as grease, lubricants, oil etc...
High cost of operation due both long time use to clean and degrease, and materials that are wasted due is poured out, leftovers, etc...
In the case of using solvents the operator is exposed to a continuous source of toxic products.
Immersion cleaning and degreasing
Cleaning and degreasing by immersion realizes immersing the material in a recipient, basket or bath fill with clean solvent, which through mechanical drive (rotating blades, rotating basket), reaches all surfaces and areas of the material. After clean and degrease is necessary perform a drying process.
The main advantage of this process of cleaning and degreasing it´s that the clean solvent reach all the inaccessible areas, but their use is limited by the size of the pieces, large pieces needed for a bath too big as well as some very powerful mechanical drives to shake all the clean solvent.
Spray cleaning and degreasing
Spray cleaning and degreasing is realize by projecting the cleaning agent directly to the piece, the projection can be done by spray guns, pressure machines, etc ... once the part has been sprayed it recovers the rest of the cleaning agent through recovery vats.
The main disadvantage of this process of cleaning and degreasing lies in the solvent lost by evaporation and their limited use for large parts.
Vapour cleaning and degreasing
Vapour cleaning and degreasing process consist to vaporize the cleaning agent, getting arrive the vapour to the surface that you want to clean. On this surface it´s condensed the cleaning agent and fall again dragging down the grease, oil, dirt and contaminants containing on the surface. After degreasing it’s applied, it’s necessary to clean with osmotic water the entire surface.
This system is most advantageous, as can be cleaned and degrease any workpiece, without the need to have big baskets or recipients, most of the solvent cleaning will be recovered by a close circuit, plus the ability to automate the entire process without the intervention of the man in the process, avoiding toxicity by direct contact with the cleaning solvent or cleaners agents.
Cleaning and degreasing by ultrasonic.
Like the cleaning and degreasing by immersion in this type of technique the workpiece is immersed in an enclosure filled basket with cleaning agent which is subjected to high frequency ultrasonic waves, generating small gas bubbles on the surface exploiting torn the contaminant.
This method is more effective than immersion cleaning getting superior cleaning qualities, but is necessary acquiring expensive equipment for generating ultrasound.
Cleaning by laser
This type of technique uses laser energy projecting against contaminants placed on the surface, so that the impact vaporizes the contaminants leaving a completely clean surface.
The main advantage of such technique is the high quality of surface cleaning is achieved, due it is highly capable of removing contaminants adhering to the surface and with a size less than one micron, a disadvantage of this kind of technique is excessively expensive over other techniques is therefore only used for workpieces or surfaces that require a high degree of cleanliness.
Cleaning and degreasing by plasma
Like cleaning by laser surface cleaning by plasma is a relatively new technique which it achieves high levels of cleanliness and degreasing, the technique takes advantage of the interactivity and chemical reactivity that has the plasma with organic contaminants which are on the surface, on the contrary besides of the high cost to acquire the equipment, plasma does not clean inorganic contaminants.
Cleaning and degreasing by biological action.
The latter type of cleaning and degreasing is based on the properties of certain microorganisms that can convert organic contaminants into carbon dioxide and water, is a very environmentally friendly and saves high cost for the management and treatment of waste compared to other techniques, against cleaning and degreasing process is very slow.
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