Paint is defined as a coating material in liquid or solid which when spread on a surface adheres and hardens forming a film that protect, decorated or add a specific feature to the surface on which it is deposited. Mainly the paint has 2 main functions:
Protection against oxidation, corrosion and degradation of materials
Decoration and embellishment of materials and surfaces
One major function of the paint is to protect the material or the substrate on which has been applied, due that once dried and cured, the paint forms an insulating layer between the external environmental and the material that wants to protect, preventing the action of external agents such as humidity, salty air, ultraviolet radiation, chemicals agents, etc ... that can induce and cause into the material phenomena such as oxidation, corrosion or degradation.
Depending on the type of protection that we want to get it will use a specific type of paint or other, protective paints are made with the corrosion inhibiting additives, paints that protect against sunlight are made with a few amount of additives that absorb ultraviolet light, etc ...
Another major function of paint is to decorate and beautify the material, thanks to the pigments and additives that include paintings; it is now possible to get a wide range of colours and decorative effects (chameleon effect, mercury effect…) which are enhanced and do more beautiful the surfaces.
Besides these two main functions, the paint can be designed to have specific functions, such as non-stick paint to facilitate cleaning of the surfaces, antibacterial paints to prevent the growth of bacteria, antideflagates paints to extinguish and prevent the action of fire, soundproof paint to absorb noise, dirt repellent paints, luminescent paint for night signalling, anti-fouling paints for ships, etc…
Paints, as plastics, are based on chemistry and polymer science, so obtaining all the advantages that can be achieved with this type of materials, all the characteristics of the paint, the curing process, handling, mechanical and chemical properties will be determined largely by the polymer backbone used in its formulation, without underestimating the properties contributed by the fillers and additives introduced during the design and formulation of paints.
The paint is composed of different chemicals substances, natural or artificial, which can be classified into the following basic compounds:
Resins and binders- This is the polymer base of the paint and thus is the basic element.
Pigments - These are solid materials that provide the tone and colour of the paints and others like anticorrosion, luminescent, etc…
Fillers- Set of chemicals materials that contribute and improve the mechanical, chemical and physical properties of paints
Additives - These are chemicals materials that are added in small amounts, which are designed to add a specific feature of the paint and improve the application, examples of additives are wetting agents, film-formation promoters, leveling agents…
Solvents - are chemicals materials that make the paint a liquid material and fluid with a specific viscosity.
Thinners - are chemicals materials that allow changing the viscosity of the paint according to the conditions and means of application, the main difference is that the solvents do not dissolve to the paint.
Hardeners - are chemical compounds that react with the resin, producing the formation of the polymer and hence the solidification of the paint, are paints which do not require hardener, curing or solidification occurs by the action of humidity, the application of ultraviolet light, etc…
Catalyst - are chemical compounds that accelerate the curing or solidification process of the paints, also called as accelerators or dryers.
Now that you know what the paint is, did you know that thanks to nanotechnology science "electronic" paints have been developed that change colour when you press a button?
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